The communication competences for this unit are based on motivational interviewing techniques, which aim to make it possible for physical education teachers and coaches to gain a better understanding of their groups while also promoting rapid, internally motivated change (Miller and Rollnick, 1991). These techniques are especially useful because they help physical education teachers and coaches think about a) which questions they ask and b) how they ask the questions. In turn, these questions help achieve greater understanding of others, help implement discussions following the Reflect-Connect-Apply approach and allow physical education teachers and coaches to promote change. Furthermore, these techniques foster competence and motivation to engage in intercultural communication amongst participating students or athletes.

Motivational interviewing (MI) is a directive, individual centred counselling style that helps individuals explore and face ambiguous situations. Through discussions, the physical education teachers and coaches help others identify solutions to problems while revealing insights into the people they are interviewing. Generally, MI integrates three key communication techniques, which are presented in the table below (Souders, 2020).

If you know ahead of time who you will be speaking with or what country you will be visiting, it makes sense to research cultural norms and standards, and communication methods for that particular place. Do not walk into the situation unprepared if you can avoid it.

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