Irrespective of their mode of delivery, the goals of intercultural learning and its didactical principles should rely on what has been defined “cultural appropriateness” (Kreuter et al., 2003). This means that physical education teachers and coaches need to be aware of the welfare of their students or athletes, as well as respond to the different ways they perceive intercultural relations. In doing so, physical education teachers and coaches can foster the acquisition of behavioural, cognitive, and affective competences associated with effective interaction across cultures. More specifically, educational programs directed at physical education teachers and coaches should not only focus on the transfer of “knowledge and techniques”, but also help to identify how individual beliefs “may impede their ability to teach equitably” (Grimminger, 2012).
It is also of utmost important to be aware of the backgrounds of students or athletes, as well as one’s own beliefs, in the planning stages of physical education or coaching programs. Stephan and Stephan (2013) identified six stages for designing intercultural education and training programs:
1) Select the cultures or subgroups involved in the program
2) Set up the goals of the program involved
3) Choose theories of culture and cultural change that are relevant to achieving these goals
4) Decide how to achieve the goals selected
5) Select the techniques, exercises and materials that will activate these processes
6) Evaluate the effectiveness of the program
Approaches such as a Problem Tree or Theory of Change model, which are presented in Unit 4, can also be useful for establishing the goals and inputs of a program.